Who lived in Claremont Road in 1891? the census returns

Wednesday, 7 February 2018


We've written, here, before about the inhabitants of Claremont Road in 1881 - the first census taken after the start of construction of the Woodgrange estate. This post takes a look at the census a decade later, in an effort to see how the composition of the road had changed over the first full decade of its existence.

In 1881 there were just 66 houses on the road (nos. 1-67 and 2-64). Ten percent of those were unoccupied. The road - only partially constructed - had a large proportion of youngish residents and householders, so 60% of households had children under the age of 10.

Original deed to number 44,
dated 1879. Purchased for £530,
 with annual ground rent of £8.80p
The road was, of course, predominantly middle class and 83% of households had live-in servants, others may have employed daily labour.  Thirteen of the houses (22%) had two live-in servants - usually a general "maid of all works" and a child care worker (nursemaid, nanny etc).

Only four of the heads of household were women - three of them were widows and described as "living on means" (pensions, rents share dividends etc.). T he only economically active female head was  Elizabeth Lollard of number 48. She was the owner/head of a "ladies' college" - run from the house (see advert).

Number 48 today - a girls academy in 1891

A decade later

The Woodgrange estate was still under construction - and not to be completed for at least three years. But house building progress had been slow in the intervening decade.  There were only 98 houses registered in the census - a 50% increase. 

The relatively small rise in completed houses (32) over a decade can largely be explained by a slump in the construction industry in the middle of the decade, that halted building for some while.

All of the 98 houses were occupied - in contrast to the 10% vacancy rate 10 years earlier. Presumably the road was beginning to look a bit less like a building site than it had done a decade previously, and doubts about the viability or desirability of the street and estate as a residency had been dispelled.

Sixty per cent of households had children of school age, or lower - a slightly lower percentage than a decade previously.

Archibald Cameron Corbett - the Woodgrange estate's
developer, and the drinking fountain bearing his
name, outside Forest Gate station at the turn
of the twentieth century
Eighty per cent of households had servants, and 11 houses had two servants; these figures - particularly the second are down on the 1881 figures.

Half of the houses without servants, interestingly were among the even houses 2 - 22 on the road. In 1881 these same houses had a high level of unoccupancy and a relatively low level of servant employment.

The end of Claremont Road c 1908.The
apparently "less desirable" houses on the left
hand side behind the tall trees and a little further down
They were bombed during WW2, and so no longer survive.  It can only be concluded that these were perhaps of inferior construction or desirability and so were more difficult to sell - or at least to attract the more prosperous householders.

Who lived in road in 1891

The short and obvious description is that they were overwhelmingly middle class. Fifteen of the heads of household were described as employers and twelve as "living on means".

Shipping and related activities accounted for six of the heads - Claremont Road providing easy access to the docks for ships' officers and those involved in the then-thriving shipbuilding trade in the southern part of West Ham.
 
There were also three heads with occupational designations such as "colonial traveller" - indicating the importance of the colonies at the time. There were at least four other heads who were described as "commercial traveller" - or similar.

With so many people associated with travel, or shipping, it is perhaps not surprising that in five of the households the head was not present on the day of the census - presumably they, too, would have been in similar occupations, but away from home on the day of the count.


Forest Gate Weekly News, February 1899, offering
 free adverts for female domestic servants looking
 for work in streets, like Claremont Road.  Interesting
that wages sought are from £14 - £22 - per year, that is!
Number 18 is interesting, in this respect. There were only servants living in the house at the time of the 1891 census - as there were in 1881. Conceivably the house was owned by people who lived abroad (in the empire, or army?) and kept a servant at home, to look after it until their return.

Nine (10%) of households were headed by a woman - all but one was a widow - and described as "living on means". The exceptional woman - once again - was Elizabeth Lollard, of number 48, whose daughter, this time, was described as owning the Ladies' College, run from the address - see advert from 1899.

Woodgrange Academy for Girls,
number 48 Claremont - sold 1899
The cases of numbers 18 and 48 point to some continuity of ownership in the road.  Seventeen  of the 66 heads of household (25%) in 1881 were still running the house a decade later.

All 84 of the live-in servants were described as "single" - two of that number being older and designated as "widows".

West Ham - and perhaps Forest Gate in particular - has always been a home to migrants and the 1891 census shows this quite dramatically.

Only one of the 98 heads of households - Henry Bennett of number 94 - was born in West Ham. This is largely a consequence of the rapid population growth of the area. The population of Forest Gate, at the time most of the heads were born, was around 500 - it was fifty times that number by this census. So - in comers overwhelmingly populated this rapidly growing suburb.

Claremont Road, dated 1912
Twenty six heads of household gave their place of birth as being London, ten Middlesex (most of which then, is what would now be described as London), seven came from Essex, four from Surrey and three Kent.

Interestingly, quite a few came from much further afield - five from Scotland, four Germany and two from each of Ireland and Holland and one from France.

The "servants" were, perhaps unsurprisingly more likely to be local.  Thus seven gave West Ham as their place of birth and 28 either London or Middlesex.  Two thirds came from what we now call the London and the home counties.  Only two were from very far afield - one from each of Ireland and Scotland.

Notably, 21 came from Essex and five from Suffolk - bearing continued testimony of the pull of London to the displaced rural poor.  It is almost as if the householders moved east to Forest Gate (country retreat?) and the servants moved west (secure employment?).

'A maid of all works' - illustration taken
from Mrs Beeton's Book of Household
Management, 1879
The Forest Gate News five years later offered free advertisements for "female domestic servants requiring situations". The opportunity was taken up largely by young women from Essex, who sought positions as "domestic servants" or "maids of all works", for an average of £16 per year. They would have received full board and lodging, in addition, for their six day, twelve hours labour.

Household composition in 1891

We have tried, as far as possible to summarise the census data for each household and present it in a similar way for each house in the list below. So, for each house we have identified the person described as "Head of household". These are invariably are men - see above for details and explanations of variations.

This is followed by the age given in the census for that person, followed by the description of occupation listed in the census. An "E" after an occupancy designation indicates that, according to the census, that the person was an employer.

The birthplace of the head is then given, in an abbreviated fashion. The total number of people in the household (excluding servants) is then given and the number of children of school age or below is then cited.

Details of servants are listed, by name, age and place of birth.  Some conclusions to some of these features is presented in the analysis, above.
NB. - and genealogists will be very familiar with this - the census details are hand written and in this case by enumerators with very hard-to-decipher handwriting.  So, there may be some misreading of the handwriting, particular with the exact spelling of some of the people's names.

Claremont Road, dated 1913

Households - odd numbers

1. Head: John Gray (50), occ: Examiner, Board of Trade,  b: Scot.  # in household: 1,  # of child: 0 . Servant:  Margaret McEwan (29), b: Ire.

3. Head: Heskens Baker (31), occ: Collector , b: Warks . #in household: 3, # of child:0 . Servant: Florence Till (31), b:Worcs.

5. Head: Sidney Tarrant (32), occ: Glove merchant (E) , b: Lond. #in household:4 , # of child:1 . Servant: Jane Woodward (19), b:Kent.

7. Head: Sarah Calman (widow) (72), occ: Living on means , b:Ches . #in household: 2, # of child:0 . Servant: Minnie Kelty (22), b: Essex.

9. Head: John Forecourt (44), occ: Clerk at Bank of England , b: Worcs. #in household: 4, # of child:1 . Servant: Hepzibah Bougham  (23), b: M'sex.

11. Head: Thomas Etherington (50), occ: Inspector, GPO , b: Herts . #in household: 2, # of child: 0. Servant: Florence Matthews (16), b: W Ham.

13. Head: Thomas Todd (36), occ: Marine engineer, b: Durham . #in household:4 , # of child:2 . Servant: Mary Langdale (16), b: Kent.

15. Head: Jeffery Stewart (26), occ Manager, sugar refinery: , b: Scot . #in household: 2, # of child: 0 . Servant: Rosetta Beaumont (widow) (38), b: Lond.

17. Head Marion Moss (widow): (66), occ: Living on means  , b: Kent . #in household: 3, # of child: 2. Servant: Mary Harris (27), b: Lond.

19. Head: Henry Bishop (49), occ: Furrier (E), b:M'sex . #in household: 4, # of child:1 . Servant: Sarah Binden (28), b: W Ham.

21. Head: William Ferres (70), occ: Brewer's traveller , b: Berks . #in household:3 , # of child: 0. Servant: Mary Thomas (32), b: Lond.

23. Head: Henry Pearce (46), occ: Commercial traveller, b: Lond. #in household:9 , # of child: 5 . Servant Ellen Squires:  (22), b: Norfolk.

25. Head: William Browning (48), occ: Commercial clerk , b:M'sex . #in household:9 , # of child: 7. Two servants: Sarah Raven and Grace Raven (21 and 12), b: Essex.

27. Head: John Radcliffe (43), occ: Colonial broker clerk, b: Surrey. #in household: 4, # of child: 2 . Servant: Mary Song  (20), b: Suffolk.

29. Head: Jules Barly (44), occ: Civil engineer , b: France . #in household: 2, # of child: 2 . No servants.

31. Head: Charles Randall (46), occ: Railway superintendent , b: Suffolk. #in household:12 , # of child: 4. Servant: Harriet Jewerson (20), b: Suffolk.

33. Head: Mary Greenhill (widow) (71), occ: No details, b: Lond . #in household: 4, # of child:0 . Servant: Emily Burbege (20), b: M'sex.

35. Head: David Thomas (46), occ: Draper's commercial traveller, b: Wales. #in household: 6, # of child: 4. Servant: Sarah Moore (35), b: Suffolk.

37. Head: George Thorogood (64), occ: Living on means , b: Essex . #in household: 5, # of child: 0. Servant Millicent Roost (16), b: Essex.

39. Head: George Booth (48), occ: Insurance clerk , b Lond: . #in household: 3, # of child: 0. Servant: Emily Clarke (35), b: Essex.

41. Head: John Atkins (51), occ: Surveyor of customs , b: Yorks. #in household: 4, # of child: 0 . Servant: Sarah Humphries (46), b: M'sex.

43. Head: Hamilton Guernsey (43), occ: Insurance clerk , b: Surrey. #in household: 4, # of child:2 . Servant: Ella Hart (21), b: M'sex.

45. Head: James Everett (42), occ: Commercial traveller, b: Essex . #in household:4 , # of child: 2 . Two servants:  Kate Layer (21), b: Surrey and Harriet Lucking (15), b: W Ham.

47. Head: Thomas Spencer (78), occ: Retired master mariner, b: Yorks. #in household: 2 , # of child: 0. No servants.

49. Head: William Later (46), occ: Elementary school master (it would appear that he and his wife owned/ran an elementary school), b: Lond. #in household: 7, # of child: 3. Servant: Emma Banes (19), b: Lond.

51. Head: Edward Finkensstadt (58), occ: Living on means, b: Germany (naturalised British. #in household: 7(inc 2 journalist sons), # of child: 1. Servant: Mary Crompton (16), b: Derbys.

53. Head: Andrew Scheerbohm (29), occ: Fur salesman, b: Holland. #in household:3 , # of child: 1. Servant:  Kate Standen (28), b: Lond.

55. Head: William Turner (50), occ: Living on means, b: M'sex. #in household: 5, # of child: 0. No servants.

57. Head: Charles Palmer (51), occ: Agent, woollen manufacturer, b: Lond. #in household: 5, # of child: 0. No servants.

59. Head: Julian Jacobi (48), occ Mercantile clerk: , b: Prussia . #in household: 5 , # of child: 3. Servant: Sarah Bishop (28), b: Lond.

61. Head: Mary Scobie (head not present) (41), occ: None given, b: Scot. #in household: 4, # of child: 3 . Servant: Alice Prudence (20), b: Essex.

63. Head: Robert Wyatt (39), occ: Brokers' clerk , b: M'sex . #in household: 7, # of child: 4. Two servants: Annie Northcott (18), b:Cornwall and Emily Witham (18), b: Essex.

65. Head: William Bewers (39), occ: Clerk, b: Essex. #in household: 4, # of child: 2. Servant:  Jessie Smith (17), b: Essex.

67. Head: Henry Hollingsworth (32), occ: Architect, b: Lond. #in household: 7, # of child: 4. Servant: Margaret Lake (22), b: Lond.

69. Head: HJ Hogg (widow) (55), occ: None given, b: Lond. #in household: 6, # of child:0 . Servant:  A Parks(14), b: Essex.

71. Head: Mark Townsly (27), occ: None given , b: Ire . #in household: 2 , # of child: 0 . Servant:  Martha Williams (25), b: Hants.

73. Head: Martha Ingold (head not present) (34), occ:  Schoolmistress, b: Surrey. #in household:  5, # of child: 0. Servant:  Emma White (21), b: Unknown.

75. Head: Charles Hill (35), occ: Clerk, b: M'sex . #in household: 6 , # of child: 1. Two servants: Annie Tallock  (26), b: Cornwall and Clara Davies (16), b: M'sex.

77. Head: John Templeton (49), occ: Master mariner, b: Scot. #in household: 6, # of child: 2 . Servant:   Rose Stokes (22), b: Essex.

79. Head: George Koster (60), occ: Colonial traveller , b: Ger. #in household:9 , # of child: 7. Two servants: Clara Edgar (Mother's helper) (19), b: Lond and Isabella Annandale (17), b: Scot.

81. Head: Frederick Wells (45), occ: Commercial traveller, b: Northants. #in household: 5, # of child: 2. Servant:  Kate Hills (20), b: Lond.

83. Head: Joseph Townsend (49), occ: Cashier , b: Warks . #in household:6 , # of child: 1. Servants: Sarah Dean (21), b: Essex.

85. Head: Wentworth Scott (54), occ: Journalist, b: Lond. #in household: 2, # of child: 0. Servant: Annie Turner (22), b: Lond.

87. Head: John Graham (48), occ: Agent for patentees, b: Scot. #in household: 10, # of child: 4. No servants.

89. Head: Francis Parker (34), occ: Factory manager, b: Somerset. #in household: 5, # of child: 2. No servants.

91. Head: James Pollock (56), occ: Consulting engineer, b: Lond. #in household: 10, # of child: 4. Servant:  Annie Freedman (20), b: W Ham.

93. Head: W Tipson (46), occ: Rope maker (E), b: Warks. #in household: 6, # of child: 2. Servant:  Kate Mitchell (21), b: M'sex.

95. Head: Edward Shallis (42), occ: Warehouseman buyer, b: M'sex. #in household: 6, # of child: 4. Servant: Alice Hall (19), b: Essex.

97. Head: Martha Mosely (widow) (67), occ: Living on means, b: Lond. #in household: 3, # of child: 1. Servant: Elizabeth Flynn (31), b: Lond.

Households - even numbers

2. Head: Frank Edenborough (47), occ: Traveller , b: Lond. #in household: 4, # of child:0 . No servants.

4. Head: Peter Sharp (61), occ: Marine insurance accountant, b: Lond . #in household:4 , # of child:0 . No servants.

6. Head: Herbert Pate (33), occ: Merchant (E) , b: Cams . #in household: 5, # of child:3 . No servants.

8. Head: Matthew Summer (53), occ: Director, b: Lancs . #in household: 8, # of child: 3. No servants.

10. Head: Elizabeth Grealey (widow) (40), occ: Living on means, b: Hants . #in household: 2, # of child: 0. No servants.

12. Head: William Culaye (44), occ: Colonial merchant, b: Ire. #in household: 6, # of child: 3. No servants.

14. Head: Thomas Marriott (70), occ: Retired Inland Revenue , b: Warks . #in household: 6, # of child: 3. No servants.

16. Head: Henry Cooper (55), occ: None given, b: ??. #in household: 4, # of child: 1. Servant: Louisa Randall (19), b: Essex.

18. Head: Head not present , occ: ??, b: ??. #in household: 2, # of child: 0. Servant:  Louise Wilton (25), b: W Ham.

20. Head: William Dyer (33), occ: Silk warehouseman, b: Lond. #in household: 7, # of child: 3. No servants.

22. Head: Elizabeth Fardell (43), occ: , b: Living on means. #in household: 5, # of child: 4. No servants.

24. Head: Frances Lucas (widow) (57), occ: Living on means,  b: Oxon. #in household: 3, # of child: 0. Servant: Jane Quelch (38), b: Essex.

26. Head: Edward Blower (49), occ: Architect, b: M'sex . #in household: 5, # of child: 0. Servant: Susanna Colby (17), b: Essex.

28. Head: Albert Jones (widower) (47), occ: Advertising contractor (E), b: Surrey. #in household: 3, # of child: 1. Servant:  Sarah Harman - housekeeper - (widow) (65), b: M'sex.

30. Head: John King (34), occ: , Civil engineer b: Lancs. #in household: 4, # of child: 2. Two servants:  Ellen Hadden (25), M'sex; Frances Conistake (16) (nursemaid), b: M'sex.

32. Head: Elizabeth Harris (head not present) (37), occ: No details, b: Devon. #in household: 6, # of child: 2. Servant: Mary Crabb (19), b: Essex.

34. Head: Frederick Machon (29), occ: Living on means, b: Lond. #in household: 2, # of child: 0. Servant:  Kate Fuller (21), b: Suffolk.

36. Head: Michael Brady (46), occ: Warehouseman, b:  Ire. #in household: 6, # of child: 0. No servants.

38. Head: John Lussinger (46), occ: Secretary, public company, b: Lond. #in household: 6, # of child: 3. No servants.

40. Head: William Cowell (28), occ: Oil Manufacturer (E), b: Essex. #in household: 5, # of child: 3. Two servants: Fanny Allen (19), Bucks and Emily Allen (17), b: Bucks.

42. Head: William Burrough (42), occ: Manager, brass works, b: Lond. #in household: 3, # of child: 0. Servant:  Frances Hawke (22), b: Yorks.

44. Head: Henry Kitchen (60), occ: Clerk, b: Lond. #in household: 7, # of child: 1. Servant: Florence Hart (14), b: Lond.

46. Head: Frederick Clarke (28), occ: Boot and shoe manufacturer, b: Lond. #in household: 2, # of child: 0. Servant: Martha Groves (19), b: Berks.

48. Head: (54), Elizabeth Lollard occ: None given, but her daughter, living with her, was principal of Ladies' College, b: Essex . #in household: 4, # of child: 1. Servant:  Gertrude Corby (17), b: Lond.

50. Head: Alfred Bays (55), occ: Commissioning agent, b: Cambs. #in household: 4, # of child: 0. No servants.

52. Head: Frederick Bliss (36), occ: Clerk, b: Lond. #in household: 5, # of child: 3. Two servants:  Annie Cameron - mother's help - (18) W Ham; Fanny Barron (20), b: Surrey.

54. Head: Adriannus Stuart (42), occ: Commissioning agent (E), b: Holland. #in household: 7, # of child: 4. Servant:  Annie Madam (15), b: Lond.

56. Head: Henry Cunningham (32), occ: Clerk - GPO, b: Lond. #in household: 2, # of child: 0. Servant:   Mary Street (20), b: Yorks.

58. Head: Michael Huth (38), occ: Tailor (E), b: Bavaria. #in household: 7, # of child: 5. Servant: Emma Harris (16), b: Lond.

60. Head: Thomas Dowby (widower) (75),occ: Civil servant (retired), b: Kent. #in household: 4, # of child: 0. Servant:  Emma Clarke (17), b: Essex.

62. Head: Richard Beal (36), occ: Merchant (E), b: Kent. #in household: 8, # of child: 5. Servant: Emily Potter (18), b: Essex.

64. Head: Isaac Collino (49), occ: Managing Director, Lamp manufacturer (E) , b: Lond. #in household:  7, # of child: 5. Servant:  Sarah Plews (nursemaid) (15), b: Lancs.

66. Head: Stewart Russell (32), occ: Civil engineer, b: Lond. #in household: 3, # of child: 1. Two servants: Mary Searle - widow(40), Lond;  Sophia Golding (19), b: Lond.

68. Head: Joseph Preistley (46), occ: Accountant , b: Lincoln. #in household:7 , # of child: 5. No servants.

70. Head: Charles Gray (35), occ: Inspector of agents, b: Sussex. #in household: 3, # of child: 0. Servant: Ada Castor (31), b: Lond.

72. Head: William Stewart (62), occ: Engineer's agent, b: Yorks. #in household: 3, # of child: 0. No servants.

74. Head: William Beal (50), occ: Optician (E), b: Essex. #in household: 7, # of child: 1. Servant: Elizabeth Pamplin (35), b: Essex.

76. Head: William la Rivrene (44), occ: , Surveyor b: M'sex. #in household: 6, # of child: 4. Two servants:  Elizabeth Root (22) W Ham; Beatrice Tuffield(17), b: Surrey.

78. Head: William Knight (49), occ: Linoleum manufacturer (E)3 of his employees seem to have been living with him, b: Berks. #in household: 10, # of child: 2. No servants.

80. Head: James Fife (60), occ: Accountant, b: Lond. #in household: 11, # of child: 6. No servants.

82. Head: Ellen Nade - head not present (39), occ: None given, b: Yorks. #in household: 4, # of child: 3. Servant:  Jeanette Johnson (22), b: W Ham.

84. Head: Henry Rice (64), occ: Schoolmaster (E), b: Cumberland. #in household: 2, # of child: 0. No servants.

86. Head: Harry Jowett (39), occ: Income tax assessor, b: M'sex. #in household: 10, # of child: 6. Servant:  Emily Farley (18), b: Hants.

88. Head: Mary Stapleton - widow and head (36), occ: Living on means, b: LOnd. #in household: 4, # of child: 2. No servants.

90. Head: John Page (36), occ: Clothing manufacturer (E), b: Norfolk. #in household: 6, # of child: 4. Servant:  Eliza Constable (25), b: Essex.

92. Head: Eliza Burnett - widow and head (58), occ: No occupation: two sons, both button dealers , b: M'sex. #in household: 6, # of child: 0. Servant:  Annie Ratcliffe (17), b: Kent.

94. Head: Henry Bennett (29), occ: Living on means, b: W Ham. #in household: 2, # of child: 0. Servant:  Alice Maycock (30), b: M'sex.

96. Head: Joseph Owen (36), occ: Steamship agent (E), b: Lond. #in household: 5, # of child: 3. Two servants: Elizabeth Vigis (22), Essex; Phoebe Felton (20), b: Warks.


98. Head: Sarah Thompson - head not present (44), occ: ??, b: Lond. #in household: 5, # of child: 3. Servants:  Edith Persuits (15), b: Suffolk.

No comments:

Post a Comment

We welcome comments to all the items featured on this site. However, we reserve the right to omit offensive comments, and edit the length of comments, for reasons of space.