Cann Hall Farm

Friday 5 April 2024

Mark Gorman (@Flatshistorian) continues his series on the history of the pre-suburban farms that occupied Forest Gate and its surrounding area.

Cann Hall Farm was on the western end of Wanstead Flats, where Worsley and Ranelagh Roads join what is now Cann Hall Road (then called Cann Hall Lane). The farm remained until major housing development began in the 1870s, probably disappearing in the mid-1880s.

The farm was part of the manor of Cann Hall, which originated in Hugh de Montfort's Domesday holding of 3 hides and 30 acres in Leyton. Parts of the holding were given by de Montfort's daughter and her husband to the canons of Holy Trinity, Aldgate, and the grant was confirmed by the king in about 1121. This may be where its name derived from, initially as Canon's Hall. Holy Trinity retained Cann Hall until the priory's dissolution in 1532. In 1533 several petitions were made to the Crown for possession of the manor, though it was not valuable.

In 1533 the only buildings attached to the manor were two old barns and a little cottage. By 1746 Cann Hall included buildings on both sides of Cann Hall Lane. In 1841 the main farm buildings lay north of the lane and there was a cottage to the south of it. By the 1860s the cottage, enlarged, had become a residence with ornamental gardens called Cann Hall; the buildings north of the lane were called Cann Hall Farm.

Between the 16th and 17th centuries the manor passed through the hands of a number of landholders, before being sold in 1671 to William Colegrave for £2,750. In 1715 the assets of the manor were worth about £65 a year, and the farm about £105. The manor remained in the Colegrave family until the 19th century, usually let to tenants, and in 1799 the manor comprised 230 acres.

The farm appears on the 1777 Chapman and Andre map of Essex as "Kan Hall", with buildings either side of Cann Hall Lane, east of the road from Stratford to Leyton.

"Kan Hall" on the Chapman and Andre map of Essex 1777. Thanks to Tim Fransen for this open accessed digitised resource

During the following decades market-gardening increased, especially at Cann Hall. In 1811 there were some 200 acres growing potatoes in the parish. When Cann Hall manor farm was let on a 10-year lease in 1820 it was described as "capital arable land", suitable for cabbages, turnips and potatoes, and well suited for supplying London markets. The advertisement (below) makes clear that there were two farms, on either side of Cann Hall Lane.

Star (London) 5 October 1820

The two farms were let to separate tenants, and in 1825 the tenant of Little Cann Hall Farm (presumably the one on the south side of Cann Hall Lane) sold up. The advertisement (below) gives an insight into the type of farming carried on at Cann Hall. Potatoes were an important crop, and clover hay would have been used as part of a four-course rotation to fix soil nitrogen and increase yeilds. Two milking cows indicates that they may have been for domestic use, and the wash-waggon may have been used to wash down the farmyard after milking.

Morning Advertiser 5 December 1825

The earlier advertisement also clarified that both farms were tithe-free, and in 1829 this became the subject to a legal dispute between the new tenant of Cann Hall Farm, Richard Plaxton, and the churchwardens of West Ham, who claimed he owed £2.8sh. (about £2.40) for the poor rate on 8 acres of a field called the Great Ashfield, located on the road from Stratford to Leyton. Plaxton produced documents that showed the field was in Wanstead parish, and was, therefore, tithe-free, and the judge found in his favour.

In 1841 the parish of Wanstead contained some 290 acres arable, 610 acres meadow and pasture, 200 acres enclosed woodland, and 670 acres forest waste, including Wanstead Flats. More than half the arable land (158 acres) was at Cann Hall. The total area of Cann Hall farm was 201 acres.

Robert Colegrave had been succeeded by his sister's son John Manby who died in 1819. William Manby (d.1868), nephew and heir of John Manby, took the name of Colegrave. In 1841 his estate comprised 205 acres in Wanstead and 17 acres in West Ham. Most of the Wanstead holding was still occupied by Richard Plaxton, who was a member of a large family of local farmers.

Tithe apportionment map of Wanstead parish 1841, showing Cann Hall Farm (41) and Cann Hall (20) on either side of Cann Hall Lane. The tenant of both was Richard Plaxton

There is some evidence of the agriculture practised at Cann Hall. The press reports of the 1849 fire mention cornfields in the front of the house, and there was also a report of a theft of potatoes from the farm in 1852. Evidence from a legal case in 1853 suggested that Plaxton also turned out a small number of cows on Wanstead Flats. At mid century 3/4 of Essex farms were arable, and many kept livestock for domestic consumption and to provide manure.

When the farm's assets were put up for sale in December 1854 they included a small number of milk cows, a herd of pigs, as well as a large quantity of agricultural machinery (including a horse powered potato washing machine) and a number of carts and cart-horses, so it may have been a fairly large operation. 

Plaxton's tenure saw the beginnings of changes in the area as London grew ever larger. The area was close enough to London to begin to attract day trippers, especially after the Eastern Counties Railway opened through Forest Gate in the 1840s. In 1854 a Sunday visitor accidentally hit Plaxton in the face with shotgun pellets, causing him to rage against Cockney sportsmen who were becoming an "intolerable nuissance".

George Cruikshank's 1837 cartoon showing the Cockney sportsmen that Plaxton complained about

Communications were improving too. By the late 1840s there was a telegraph connection at Stratford station to the London Fire Brigade, which was brought into action when hay ricks at Cann Hall farm caught fire. The fire brigade arrived in time to save the house and granaries from destruction.

Plaxton left Cann Hall Farm in 1855, possibly as a result of a legal dispute with Wanstead parish over his poor rate contribution, which he lost. He moved to Stratford Green, where (perhaps in a sign of the changing times) he became a brick manufacturer.

In 1861 the tenant was Chamberlayne Hickman Lake, who described himself in the census as a farmer of 300 acres, employing 30 men. This implies that he farmed elsewhere as Cann Hall farm seems only ever to have been about 200 acres in size. This would fit with the history of the Lake family, who were substantial farmers in Essex for over 200 years. Chamberlayne Lake was the son of Isaac Lake of Aldersbrook Farm, and his  two brothers also farmed in the area.

A comparison of the 1841 tithe map and the OS map of 1863 shows that in the intervening two decades substantial changes had been made to the farm. By 1863 the scattering of farm buildings shown on the tithe map had been entirely remodelled in a classic “model farm” layout. At this time in many parts of Essex and elsewhere traditional farm layouts, with timber-framed barns and buildings, were being replaced with ‘model farms’, built of brick and the latest manufactured materials. These farms were planned to increase the efficiency of the buildings, which were clean and functional, introducing the idea of production-lines to farming.

All of these innovations were aimed at maximising profit. The farm may have been rebuilt as Lake became the tenant, in which case Cann Hall became a model farm at the same time as the new Aldersbrook Farm was built along the same lines on Wanstead Flats. The tenant there was Chamberlayne Lake’s father Isaac.

Cann Hall Farm in Cann Hall Lane in the 1863 six-inch Ordnance Survey map. The farm now rebuilt as a model farm, had a substantial range of buildings on the north side of Cann Hall Lane. The cottage on the south side of the lane, once another farm had, by the 1860's, been enlarged, and became a residence.
The 1863 map showing the surrounding area, with no building development along Cann Hall Lane.

Lake seems to have continued Plaxton’s policy of mixed arable farming and market gardening for the London vegetable market, growing onions and potatoes in extensive fields which stretched as far as the river Lea in Stratford. Lake was also an innovator. In 1869 Fowler’s steam plough machinery was being demonstrated at Cann Hall Farm. 

Fowler's steam-powered ploughing machinery

In 1886 Cann Hall was still being described as a “model farm”, but the days of Wanstead and West Ham as agricultural districts were clearly numbered. For two decades from the 1850s the price of grain remained high, partly due to overseas conflicts such as the Crimean War and the American Civil War. But from the 1870s cheap grain imports combined with poor harvests to create a severe agricultural depression in Britain.

Even as these developments were happening rapid change was overtaking the area. In 1863 the Conservative Land Company announced the laying out of plots in the newly created Woodhouse Road, which joined Harrow Road and Cann Hall Lane.

Newspaper advertisements for house sales were multiplying. In 1873 the country view from one house could still be described as “magnificent” but perhaps more significant for the future of the area was the additional comment that trams passed the door every few minutes. The 1881 census showed that Cann Hall Lane was becoming more urbanised, with cottages and villas along its length. Chamberlayne Lake’s immediate neighbour was a builder’s estate office occupied by the builder’s timekeeper and cashier and their families. 

Over the next decade most of the estate was developed for building, but the Colegraves retained part of it until 1900. Among local street names commemorating them and their connections are Colegrave, Downsell, Ellingham and Worsley Roads. All trace of the farm and its buildings had been swept away.

By the 1890s Cann Hall Road was completely built up and the farm (corner of modern-day Blenheim Road - see above) had disappeared. Ordnance Survey 25-inch map 1897

However, one final reminder of the last tenant of Cann Hall Farm does remain in Cann Hall Road. Chamberlayne Lake was a devout nonconformist Christian, and from 1875 he made his barn available as a makeshift chapel. His original idea had been to encourage his farm workers to come to services, but that proved a failure. 

A large proportion of the congregation were from the Gipsy community who camped on the edge of Wanstead Flats. Mrs Lake provided tea in the farmhouse for the women and children, who then attended the Tuesday evening services “after a good wash at the pump”. The barn was whitewashed and provided with a harmonium, and despite the otherwise basic conditions (seating was planks across barrels of potatoes and onions), services there developed into a flourishing community. 

By the late 1870s the barn had become an informal church with three services on Sunday (Leytonstone Express and Indpendent 2 November 1878)

The barn also became famous because of preaching by the Smith brothers, a family of Gipsies who lived locally (and were to eventually build houses for themselves in Cobbold Road, a turning off Cann Hall Lane near Wanstead Flats). Services were held every Tuesday evening (to allow farm workers to attend), and for harvest festivals the barn was decorated with wheat, flowers, candles and lamps, “which gave the place a very pretty and cheerful appearance”.

Cann Hall Road Baptist Church, built on a site opposite the location of Cann Hall Farm

By 1886 the community, with Chamberlayne Lake's help, had acquired land and built a permanent church, which remains today on the corner of Cann Hall Road and Blenheim Road. Lake was by then retired, but seems to have continued his church work, since in the 1891 census he and his wife were at the "Aldersbrook Mission Room" on Wanstead Flats, where they were still living a decade later. Chamberlayne Lake died in 1905.

Aeronauts in Forest Gate

Friday 29 March 2024

In conjunction with local historians, Mark Gorman (@Flatshistorian) and Peter Williams, we examine how Wanstead Flats have been used for various kinds of flying and look at some of the early aeronauts who have lived in the Forest Gate area.

Balloonists

There are big skies over Wanstead Flats, and people have been flying through them for nearly two centuries.

The earliest recorded landing on the Flats was in September 1838, when a party of balloonists who had set out from Vauxhall, south of the Thames, came down on what they described as “a lone heath”. The locals soon provided them with company, offering to “look after” the balloon overnight. When this was refused they threatened to shred the balloon, but eventually drifted off home. The intrepid balloon party retired to a local pub (the old “Eagle & Child” in Woodgrange Road.)

More balloons were to appear over the Flats in the following years, and some well-known balloonists lived in the area. Among them was Thomas Wright, an East End photographer who ended up living in Forest Gate. He was an early pioneer of ballooning.

While running his photography business in East India Dock Road in the early 1870s, he came across Henry Croxwell and struck up a ballooning partnership with him.

The Illustrated London News of January 1900 described Croxwell, a one-time dentist, as “the foremost balloonist of the last half of the nineteenth century”. Croxwell made his first balloon flight, aged 25, in 1844 and within four years was described as a professional balloonist.

In his 1889 autobiography, My Life and Balloon Experiences, Croxwell mentions Wright as an important ally in the rapidly developing art of ballooning:

Mr. Thomas Wright, the well-known Crystal Palace aeronaut, became my deputy, and acquitted himself in first-rate style. That gentleman had kindly and efficiently assisted me on some previous occasions, taking charge of my balloon, and commending himself … by his straightforward conduct; he has since become a regular yearly attendant with balloons of his own … and is ably supported by his friends Mr. Dale ... who have both had considerable experience in ballooning; so that with their united efforts this feature of the entertainment is not likely to fall into the hands of those who are incompetent, or who have not deserved to succeed as Mr. Wright has done.

A post-retirement photo of Henry Croxwell

Croxwell’s reference to the “Crystal Palace aeronaut” is illuminating. In 1859 the Crystal Palace, built for the Great Exhibition in central London of 1851, was moved to the south-east London area that now bears its name. The site is on a hill, dominating the local area, which, because of its elevated position, later became a key aerial for early BBC radio transmissions. Its lofty position also made it an ideal spot for balloonist trips, which became expensive tourist attractions in their own right.

The tourist attraction of the Crystal Palace in south London. Photo taken soon after Wright and Dale used it as a base for their aeronautics.
Wright flew balloons from Crystal Palace and in and around London on an almost daily basis, at heights of up to 15,000 ft. Like other pioneers of ballooning he, along with Croxwell and Dale (see below), offered pleasure flights at £5 per passenger (about £500 today, using the Bank of England inflation calculator).

When Croxwell retired from the balloonist scene in the 1880s Wright took over as the main operator, trading with upto 4 balloons at a time. He moved from Poplar to Plaistow in the early 1880s, where his soon-to-be assistant William Dale also lived. 

Dale was born in Merton, Surrey in 1845 and had moved to Plaistow by 1881, when the census described him as a watchmaker. Ballooning soon became more than a hobby for him, so by 1891 he described himself to the census enumerator as an "aeronaut".

William Dale (left), preparing for a flight at Crystal Palace

He became known as Captain William Dale (it was a tradition that aeronauts called themselves Captain) and he soon took over Wright's balloon operations. Dale entertained crowds at the funfairs with balloon ascents and attracted international attention. GM Bacon, in The Record of an Aeronaut, published in 1907, described him thus: "Captain Dale was a short, powerfully built man ... full of life and energy, with a keen grey eye and a jovial manner."

Dale died in a well-publicised balloon accident at the Crystal Palace in 1892, when a tear in the fabric caused the balloon to plunge into the ground. Major Baden FS Baden-Powell (brother of Boy Scouts' founder, Robert) was a significant aeronaut, being associated with the Aeronautic Society for 57 years, until his death in 1937. He described the circumstances surrounding Dale's death, in his 1907 book, Ballooning as a Sport.

He recalled how he - Baden-Powell - had sold an old worn out and defective balloon to a dealer, who in turn sold it on to Dale, who attempted to patch it up and sell it on: "emulating the magician in Aladdin, (he) had the great invention of converting old balloons into new ones". Unfortunately, that balloon, The Eclipse, crashed on its first ascent in India, having only reached a height of 2-300 feet, killing its aeronaut.

Dale was clearly not deterred. Baden-Powell continued:

Meanwhile poor Dale doubtless thought he had found the elixir of life for balloons, and prepared a second old balloon in the same way, and what proves that he did not realise the danger or intentionally commit so awful a blunder, made an ascent himself in it, accompanied by his son and others. This balloon acted in just the same way as the first, bursting ere it was clear of the Crystal Palace grounds, and dashing to earth its human freight - Dale and one of his companions being killed, the others dreadfully injured.

The inquest, at which Thomas Wright spoke,  found that the fabric of Dale's balloon was old and weak, and patched from several balloons. Below is a press report recording Dale's fatal fall and a drawing accompanying his obituary in an Australian newspaper. Below these is a photograph of his grave in the East Ham parish church graveyard.

Chelmsford Chronicle 8 Jul 1892


A drawing of Dale,from an Australian obituary
  
Grave of Captain Dale – St Mary Magdalen East Ham parish church     


 

57 Cecil Road, Plaistow - Dale's final home - today

Wright, meanwhile, survived, and following the death of his wife, moved to 15, Margery Park Road, in Forest Gate, between Romford Road and West Ham Park, where he was resident at the time of the 1891 census.

Thomas Wright (left) ascending in one of his balloon voyages

In August 1897 he told the Forest Gate Weekly News (see accompanying photo below) that his ballooning had not exactly been profitable :

"I do not think I have lost money over it, but I do not think I have made very much. I suppose I should average £20 per journey and I have had all my balloons ... going up on different parts of the country on one day. But then I have had to pay as much as £100 damages at one time and the return journeys by road and the hotel charges are very expensive."

A photograph of Thomas Wright from 1897

Wright was possibly a bit economical with the truth when he declared “I don’t think I have made very much”. He was from a modest background and would not have earned a great deal as a photographer, before becoming a prominent balloonist. But by the 1890s was living in a rather splendid house (see below) and the Lloyds Weekly Newspaper of 12 May 1901 shows him advertising eight, six-roomed houses for sale, presumably as a developer/landlord.

He died in Margery Park Road on 5 September 1912, aged 79. Probate records show that he left £19,515 in his will - a huge amount for the time for a one-time jobbing photographer - representing 122 times the average national salary of contemporary lower middle-class worker.

Wright's death is widely regarded as marking the end of the golden age of ballooning.


15 Margery Park Road today

Unfortunately there is no record that Wright, Dale or other local balloonists flew from Wanstead Flats and it wasn’t until the early 20th century that an attempt was made to launch a flying machine.

 Powered kites

In November 1901 Col. Samuel Cody (not related to "Buffalo Bill" Cody), an American inventor, showman and part-time actor demonstrated his military reconnaissance kite on the Flats. Sadly for Cody (who was appearing in a Wild West drama at the Theatre Royal Stratford at the time) a windless day meant that the kite failed to take off properly. This amused the crowd of small boys present, but not the British military, who didn’t adopt Cody’s invention.

A Cody man-lifting kite (source:here)

Here are extracts from his diary....

1901

1 November: Experiment to take place on Wanstead Flats. Wrote to War Office (WO) saying he "was about to attempt some kite experiments using a kite of my own invention called the Viva kite similar to the American Blue Hill Box Kite i.e. flown on that principle with certain additions which I claim are an advantage over any kites yet flown". He also claimed to be the maker of the largest kite in the world. Length 27ft. Width 13 ft. Height 5 1/2 ft. with a spread of 657 sq ft.

14 November: Cody and assistants dressed as cowboys and riding horses tried unsuccessfully to give kite exhibition at Wanstead Flats. Cody told the crowd that his kites, so far, lifted only bags of sand.

20 November: Filed a provisional application for patent no. 23566 - Improvements in Kites and apparatus for the same. Cody residing at 38 Grove Crescent Road, Stratford. (now council flats, just behind Golden Grove pub).

26 November: Received letter from WO saying that they had been unable to attend his kite trials at Wanstead Flats but hoped to attend any further trials (source:here).

Model aero club

Probably the first flight of any form of aircraft from the Flats was in about 1909, by members of the Leyton and District Model Aero Club. The club which initially met by the Model Yacht Pond (now Jubilee Pond) at the Dames Road end of the Flats, flew very basic model aircraft and gliders. To this day, Wanstead Model Flying Club has a licence from the City of London, managers of Epping Forest, to fly radio-controlled aircraft on the Flats. They now have a landing ground just off Centre Road, between Forest Gate and Wanstead.

   

The club in the 70s/80s. Source Newham council archives

In more recent times paragliders, launched by being towed across the Flats at speed by a Land Rover, were for a brief period in the 1990s a Sunday afternoon feature.

Space exploration

The Flats has also played a part in UK space exploration. In 1965 the Daily Mirror reported on the British Interplanetary Travel Society, which had launched more than 30 rockets from the Flats over the previous decade. One launch achieved a height of 100 feet (30 metres). Edward Harris, the society's chairman explained that the group's main aim was: "to beat the Americans. By 1970 we should be really going places". That worked, then!

Footnote: Special thanks to David Webb of East London History Society Newsletter, Winter 2014-15, for the information on Thomas Wright. Full article: here


Community gardening in Forest Gate and beyond

Wednesday 20 March 2024

Forest Gate Community garden stalwart, Derek Smith, surveys community gardening in the Forest Gate locality and shows how you can get involved.

There are three community gardens in the Forest Gate area. Forest Gate Community Garden, the Up Garden, and Manor Park Community Garden. The latter is not in Forest Gate, but in easy walking distance, either through Manor Park cemetery or along the Flats.

All three of the gardens are on land owned by the Council. Forest Gate Community Garden and Manor Park have leases. So both have to justify their existence by what they do in the space to ensure the lease is renewed. While The UP Garden has simply taken on the upkeep of a neglected space, with none of the hassle of lease renewal. 

Forest Gate Community Garden

The garden is on Earlham Grove, about 100m west of Woodgrange Road. It is bordered by Earlham Grove, Sprowston Road, and the Gateway estate along its eastern edge. The space had been a hostel for abused women until 2006, when it was abandoned to buddleia and sycamores. In 2013 a group approached the Council to set it up as a community garden. The group finally got a lease in 2015 and worked to clear rubbish and buddleia, build raised beds, a pond, and finally put in plants. The garden opened to the public in 2016. Since then it has run music events, various celebrations for Winter, Christmas and Spring, art activities, children’s activities, as well as regular plant sales.

 The fence was originally wooden boards with a colourful mural. When part of it blew down in the winter of 2022, the opportunity was taken to erect a wire fence, making the garden more visible, and less intimidating. A prized part of the garden are the two large, colourful mosaics, one a snail, the other a frog

Forest Gate WI have met here, Woodcraft Folk use it in the warmer months, as do local artists. There are three paid, part-time workers: a gardener, an admin worker, and an outreach worker with all other helpers volunteers. The garden is a charity, open on Fridays, Saturdays and Sunday morning, always with volunteers in attendance. The philosophy is to be more than a garden, having regular events with music, art, food, and activities for children.

 

Garden volunteers looks after some of the raised bed in the Forest Gate area too, going out on Sunday mornings to maintain them. In September 2023, the garden put in a standpipe to provide water for the garden, though it uses collected rain water as much as possible. In 2019 the garden was awarded the accolade ‘Outstanding’ by the RHS in the community garden category.

The garden’s opening times are currently: Fridays: 10 to 3pm, Saturdays: 10 to 3pm and Sundays: 10 to 12 noon. These are currently under review and any changes will be announced on the garden’s website – see below.

 https://www.fgcommunitygarden.org

The UP Garden

This was created from an abandoned laundry yard in Eric Close. The yard is part of a Council estate, managed by Swan Housing Association, in the very north of Forest Gate, just a few yards from the borough boundary with Waltham Forest. The yard had become an eyesore, overgrown and with evidence of drug users. It was crying out for a new purpose. With many eager to make it happen.

As the land is owned by the Council, they agreed to start the transformation. In December 2021, the Council did an initial clearance, including fencing off an area of Japanese knotweed. Then residents took over, with much of the funding for this coming from GLA, with substantial amounts from the Council and Swan. The local community donated furniture and materials, as well as muscle. With much volunteer effort and various donations, raised beds were built and painted, along with sheds for tools and other items. Seating and tables for picnics, art and just sitting around and gossiping, were put in, as well as an undercover space.